GOATS (CAPRA) OF THE WORLD

ALPINE CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra)


LOCATION: Indigenous Alpine chamois are found in the Alps of southeastern France, northern Italy, Switzerland, southwestern Germany, western Austria and Slovenia. They have also been introduced in a number of places in France, Italy, Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovenia.

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is around 30 inches and generally weighs less than 100 pounds. Summer coat is light brown. Winter coat is very dark brown to black, contrasting sharply with white areas of head, throat and rump, and with a dark facial mask very pronounced.


REMARKS: Alpine chamois numbers are estimated at around 400,000. Stable and increasing



ALPINE IBEX

(Capra ibex)


LOCATION: Free-ranging populations in Italy, and also in Switzerland, Austria and adjacent parts of France, Germany, and Slovenia. Once again numerous in some areas, with the largest population in Switzerland.  

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is 30-34 inches and weighs about 225-275 pounds. The Alpine ibex is a stocky animal, darker in color than other ibex. Males have a small beard and large, impressive horns that are shorter, thicker and straighter than those of other ibex.


HABITAT: High mountains, normally above the tree line and at or below the snowline. Ibex evolved in arid mountains with little snow, and were never widely distributed in the Alps. Good ibex range is limited to mountains with little precipitation and with sunny, snow-free areas where the animals can survive the winter.


REMARKS: Alpine ibex are available to foreign hunters in Austria and Slovenia, and in Switzerland by special permit. When free-ranging, they offer excellent sport and are one of Europe's most prestigious big game animals because of their relative scarcity, the difficult terrain they inhabit, and the quality of the hunting experience.



ALTAY IBEX

(Capra sibirica sibirica)


LOCATION: Predominantly in the Altay Mountains of Mongolia. However, there is a small population in the Sayan Mountains over the border of Mongolia in Russia.

DESCRIPTION: A large ibex, up to 220 pounds, thick-legged and stoutly built, with a long, pointed chin beard and heavy, scimitar-shaped horns. The summer coat is short, becoming long, coarse and brittle in winter with a dorsal crest and thick undercoat. Color is variable, but generally in summer it is some shade of yellowish or grayish-brown with a darker dorsal stripe, dark under parts and legs, and without a lighter saddle patch. Winter coat is yellowish-white and usually there is a large, light saddle patch. The dorsal stripe, tail and beard are blackish-brown. The male's horns are large and impressive, curving around to form three-fourths of a circle and tapering to relatively slender points. Horns are relatively flat on the front surface and have well-defined cross ridges.


HABITAT: Open, precipitous terrain at any altitude.

























AMERICAN MOUNTAIN GOAT

(Oreamnos americanus)


LOCATION: The high mountain ranges of northwestern North America, from southern Alaska southward through the Coastal Mountains of British Columbia to the Cascades of Washington, and in the Rockies of British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. There are also limited populations in the Yukon, and in the Mackenzie Mountains of the Northwest Territories. It has been introduced on Kodiak, Baranof and Chichagof Islands in Alaska; on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; in northeastern Oregon; in several areas in Montana; in the Black Hills of South Dakota; and in several ranges in Colorado.  

DESCRIPTION: The American mountain goat’s shoulder height is 35-40 inches and can weigh up to 300 pounds. The shaggy coat is white or yellowish white (vanilla) in color, with long under wool, and longer guard hairs that form a stiff mane on the neck and rump, and pantaloons on the thighs. The legs are long and heavy, and the large hoofs have rubbery pads in the center for sure footing on rock. Black scent glands are located behind the horns in both sexes. Both males and females grow short, sharp, black horns. The horns of the female are slimmer, straighter, and less divergent at the tips than those of the male, and can be longer as well.


HABITAT: Steep slopes, cliffs and glacier edges in alpine areas that have low temperatures and heavy snowfall. Sometimes in nearby meadows and valleys.


REMARKS: The mountain goat is a first-rate game animal. Its eyesight is as good as that of a mountain sheep and it occupies far more difficult ground. It is most easily stalked from above, because it does not usually anticipate danger from that quarter. A mountain goat makes a spectacular full mount, especially when taken in late season when the hair is long and thick. Care should be taken not to shoot one in a place where the brittle horns will be broken from a fall-or to shoot one where it cannot be recovered. When hunting in precipitous areas, ropes and other mountaineering gear should be available. Because of its generally inaccessible habitat, the mountain goat has been less affected by people than any other North American big game animal. The name "mountain goat" is misleading because, biologically, it is not a true goat; it is a member of the Rupicaprini tribe-the goat-antelopes-whose members are more primitive than true goats. They include the chamois of Europe and the serow and goral of Asia. Scientists believe the American mountain goat originated in Asia and migrated to North America over the Bering land bridge about 600,000 years ago.



ANATOLIAN CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra asiatica)


LOCATION: Northern and eastern parts of Anatolia (Asian Turkey)

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is around 30 inches and weighs less than 100 pounds. General color is dark brown to black. Under parts are pale, rump is white. Throat, lower jaw, and front of face are white, and there are dark stripes across the eyes to the muzzle. Horns are generally not as heavy and long as some of the other chamois subspecies.



ASTOR MARKHOR

(Capra falconeri falconeri)


LOCATION: The Gilgit region of northern Pakistan on the slopes of Nanga Parbat and along the Indus River and its tributaries, among them the Gilgit, Astor and Hunza rivers. Along both banks of the Indus from Jalkot upstream to about Tungas near Skardu. Along the Gilgit as far upstream as Gakuch. Along the Astor as far as the Parashing Valley. Along the Hunza as far as Chalt.  

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is as much as 42 inches and weighs about 200-225 pounds. A large markhor. This is the typical race from which the species was first described. The coat is long and coarse in winter, though with very little under wool, and is much shorter in summer. The male's ruff is long and flowing. Typically, the horns of the Astor markhor flare very widely just above the base and have one to 1-1/2 twists, with the first turn being very large. They are massive and spectacular, though usually not as long as those of the Kashmir markhor. Most horns within the distribution range of the Astor markhor are of this type; however, horns of the Kashmir type with less flare and more twists are also seen. Heads from Baltistan, for example, are of a type between the Astor and the Kashmir.



BALKAN CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica)


LOCATION: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and various parts of the former Yugoslavia including Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Voivodina, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Macedonia (but not in Slovenia, which has only Alpine chamois). Indigenous populations of balcanica are found in the central region of Bosnia & Herzegovina, and in southwestern Kosovo near the border with Albania. There have also been introductions of balcanica in parts of Bosnia & Herzegovina, and in parts of Croatia and Serbia where chamois had not previously occurred.  

DESCRIPTION: Somewhat larger than the Alpine chamois, with longer horns.


REMARKS: Some say that introductions of Alpine chamois (R. r. rupicapra) have been made in southeastern Montenegro and southwestern Kosovo close to Albania; however, others deny this. While recognizing the possibility of hybrids in these areas, we elect to treat all chamois in the former Yugoslavia (except Slovenia) as Balkan chamois and all populations as indigenous. Numbers estimated at 29,000 (1981). Scarce in Greece, where it is heavily poached and subject to predation by feral dogs.



BECEITE IBEX

(Capra pyrenaica hispanica)


LOCATION: Mountains of Beceite and Tortosa in northeastern Spain.

DESCRIPTION: This is the largest and darkest type of Spanish ibex with the largest horns. Typically, the horns are straighter than in Gredos ibex and have a spiral turn of less than 180 degrees. Horn thickness remains constant for half the length, then decreases toward the tip, which is not as thin as in the Gredos race. While this is the typical Beceite horn conformation, other horn shapes may be found in this region and even in the same herd.


REMARKS: The Beceite ibex is one of three categories established for record-keeping purposes by splitting Mediterranean ibex (subspecies hispanica) into geographical groups based on horn size and shape. (The other two are southeastern Spanish ibex and Ronda ibex.)



BEZOAR (HYBRID) IIBEX

(Capra ssp)


LOCATION: Adiyaman Mountains, Turkey.  

DESCRIPTION: This animal is a cross between a Bezoar ibex and  a domestic goat that has escaped into the wild. A great variety of color variations as well as physical characteristics, including horns may exist from this cross-breeding. Horns are scimitar-shaped like that of the Bezoar, but are generally wider and flaring in appearance and lower in profile than that of the pure Bezoar ibex. Facial shape and profiles will more closely resemble that of the domestic goat including long, floppy type ears.


REMARKS: The Bezoar (Hybrid) ibex does not count for the 12 required for the Capra World Slam, but may be counted for the Super 20 and Super 30.



BEZOAR IBEX

(Capra aegagrus aegagrus)


LOCATION: Anatolia (Asian Turkey), northeastern Iraq, most of Iran and adjoining western Afghanistan. Also, in Armenia and extreme southern Turkmenistan. Its range overlaps that of the Dagestan (Eastern) tur in the Caucasus, although the tur is at higher elevations. Boundaries with the Sindh ibex to the east are unclear.

DESCRIPTION: This goat generally weighs less than 200 pounds. The bezoar is a beautiful animal with its blackish-brown markings contrasting dramatically with the lighter body color. Summer coat is a lighter reddish-brown color. The chin beard is long and black. Calluses develop on the knees and sometimes on the chest. Males have large horns and there is a distinct front edge which forms a keel for some distance, above which are bold, sharp-edged, widely separated knobs.


REMARKS: The bezoar ibex is sedentary, living its life in a small area. It favors steep, rocky terrain, whether in forests or arid regions. May be diurnal or nocturnal, depending on predator and human activity, but older males tend to sleep in hiding places (often caves) by day and feed at night. Both grazes and browses, often climbing trees to feed. Has been seen in trees 20 feet above the ground, and on limbs extending out over sheer cliffs. Extremely surefooted and agile. All senses are acute. This is an excellent game animal whose horns make a spectacular trophy.



BUKHARAN MARKHOR

(Capra falconeri heptneri)


LOCATION: Formerly in most of the mountains along the north banks of the upper Amu Darya and Pyandzh rivers from Turkmenistan to Tajikistan. Now reduced to scattered populations in the Kugitang (Koytendag Nature Reserve) range of extreme eastern Turkmenistan and southeastern Uzbekistan, in the area between the Pyandzh and Vakhsh rivers in southwestern Tajikistan, and in the northwestern part of the Darwaz Peninsula of northeastern Afghanistan near the Tajik border.

DESCRIPTION: The horns are relatively straight and in the form of a bold, tight corkscrew. This subspecies is the one commonly seen in zoos and game parks worldwide.



CANTABRIAN CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra pyrenaica parva)


LOCATION: Cantabrian Mountains of northwestern Spain.

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height about 28 inches. Weight 45-75 pounds. This is the smallest of the chamois. It also has the lightest coloration. The summer coat is reddish, turning brown in winter. Under parts are pale. Rump, throat, lower jaw and front of face are yellowish. Horns are considerably smaller on average than the Pyrenean chamois.


REMARKS: Horns are considerably smaller on average than the Pyrenean chamois.



CARPATHIAN CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra carpatica)


LOCATION: Romania, in the Carpathian Mountains and Transylvanian Alps.

DESCRIPTION: The largest of all chamois with the longest horns.


REMARKS: Numbers in 1990 were estimated at 9,000 and increasing.



CAUCASIAN CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra caucasica)


LOCATION: The Caucasus Mountains of Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, and also in the Lesser Caucasus of southwestern Georgia near the Turkish border.  

DESCRIPTION: Similar to the Alpine chamois but somewhat smaller, with relatively short, stout horns.


REMARKS: Many times the Caucasian chamois can be taken as an additional animal while hunting for the Kuban (Western) tur in the Republic of Karachayevo-Cherkesiya, Russia.


























CHARTREUSE CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra cartusiana)


LOCATION: This chamois is found only on the Chartreuse massif of the northern French Alps in southeastern France. Geographically it is part of the "Chaines Subalpines Septentrionales" and is home to the "Regional Nature Park Chartreuse." The political region is called "Rhone-Alpes" and lies between the cities of Grenoble and Chambéry. Against the East and Southeast the wide valley of the Isere divides it from the high alpine Chain of Belledonne. In the southwest of the Chartreuse Massif the Isere river makes a sharp curve and flows into the Cluse de l'Isère towards the northwest. This is the southwestern limit of the Chartreuse Massif and its border towards the Vercors Massif.

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is around 30 inches and generally weighs less than 100 pounds. Summer coat is light brown. Winter coat is very dark brown to black, contrasting sharply with white areas of head, throat and rump, and with a dark facial mask very pronounced.


REMARKS: Hunter/collectors hunting for this species of chamois should be aware that France is host to three different chamois species: Pyrenean chamois, Chartreuse chamois and Alpine chamois.



CHILTAN WILD GOAT

(Capra falconeri jerdoni x Capra aegagrus blythi)


LOCATION: In the early 1970s there were four or five populations in the Chiltan, Murdar, Koh-i-Maran, and Koh-i-Gishk ranges south of Quetta, Pakistan. By 1975, uncontrolled hunting by locals had reduced these to one population of about 170 animals in what is now Hazarganji-Chiltan National Park. Given protection within the park, the numbers increased to 480 by 1990.  

DESCRIPTION: Young males are reddish-gray, with increasing amounts of white and gray on shoulders and back. Some males have dark brown or almost black chests, and sometimes a dark shoulder stripe. Males do not have a ruff. The horns are the most distinctive feature, being intermediate in shape between those of a bezoar ibex and a markhor. They are flattened in cross section and sharply keeled in front (whereas markhor horns have the sharp keel in back) and form a long, open spiral that is normally a complete turn or a little more.



DAGESTAN (EASTERN) TUR

(Capra cylindricornis)


LOCATION: Eastern part of the Caucasus Mountains east of Mt. Dykhtau. Habitat is usually in open, precipitous terrain at higher elevations as high as 12,000 feet, but may also be found lower down in thick forest. Descends to lower elevations in winter to escape heavy snow.  

BEHAVIOR: Gregarious, sometimes in large herds numbering several hundred. Prefers to feed on forbs and grasses, but will browse. Obtains water from small pools high in the mountains. An extremely good climber as are all goats.


DESCRIPTION: This animal is not a sheep, but a goat (ibex type). However, the horns resemble the blue sheep enough to have interested sheep hunters for a long time. Shoulder height 31-39 inches. Weight 120-175 pounds, sometimes to 220 pounds. Somewhat smaller and decidedly darker in color than the west Caucasian tur. The coat is uniformly reddish-brown in summer, with under parts whitish and the tail, breast and lower legs darker. Turns a uniform dark brown in winter, with under parts slightly lighter and the tail, breast and lower legs much darker. There is a small white rump patch. Beard is dark and very short (up to three inches) and difficult to detect in some animals. The horns are quite unusual for a goat, being smooth and rounded, curving above and behind the neck (supracervical), with the tips turning inward and upward; they are quite similar to those of the Himalayan blue sheep but are more massive.


REMARKS: The Ovis World Slam includes this tur and it also counts toward the Capra World Slam.The Dagestan (Eastern) tur, like all tur, is a very fine and sporting game animal. It is hunted in steep, high mountains where good physical condition is a must, long shots may be required, and even an average trophy is something to be proud of. Weather in this region is much better than in the western Caucasus.



FERAL GOAT

(Capra Hircus)


LOCATION: Free-ranging world-wide.

DESCRIPTION: These are domestic goats living in the wild, either from releases or escapes from confinement. Domestic goats have been introduced throughout the world and have become feral in many areas. Feral goats include many domestic breeds, therefore a variety of colors, body types and horn configurations may be seen. The horns (both sexes) resemble horizontal corkscrews, rising somewhat from the skull, and then sweeping outward in a tight homonymous spiral of up to three turns.


REMARKS: The feral goat does not count for the 12 or Super 20, but may be counted for the Super 30



GORAL

(Naemorhedus goral)


LOCATION: Himalayan goral: The southern side of the Himalayan Range from Kashmir and Punjab eastward to Bhutan. Long-tailed goral: Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, eastern China, Korea, eastern Manchuria, and the Amur region of extreme eastern Siberia.

DESCRIPTION: Himalayan goral: Shoulder height 23-28 inches. Weight 48-77 pounds. Somewhat resembles a serow, differing by its smaller size, shorter horns, lack of facial glands, and certain details of the skull. Stocky and goatlike in build, with strong, stout legs, a somewhat arched back and a concave facial profile. The hair is coarse and shaggy, overlying a short, woolly undercoat. In males, there is a slight crest of hairs along the back of the neck. The tail is short and bushy. Long-tailed goral: Differs from the Himalayan goral by usually having a longer coat and a long, tufted tail. The Long-tailed goral from eastward across southern China has a comparatively short, not woolly, coat. The tail is moderately bushy, 5-6 inches long, and the upper and lower surfaces of the tuft are black. Color is very variable, ranging from ashy-gray to yellowish-brown, with a distinct dark dorsal stripe. The throat patch is more or less yellow, at least at the edges. A black stripe is on the front of the forelegs above the knees, and continuing down the outer shanks.


HABITAT: Steep, rugged, forested mountains at elevations of 3,000-9,000 feet. Seems to prefer the most difficult terrain possible.


BEHAVIOR: Active early morning and late evening, or throughout the day when it is cloudy. Rests during the middle part of sunny days, lying motionless and blending with the surroundings. Diet includes grasses, shrubs, twigs and nuts. Requires water. Vision is acute, hearing good. Alarm call is a hissing or sneezing sound.



GREDOS IBEX

(Capra pyrenaica victoriae)


LOCATION: Mountains in west-central Spain, especially the Gredos and Batuecas mountains.  

DESCRIPTION: After the Beceite ibex, the Gredos ibex is the largest and darkest in color and has the largest horns. Typically, the horns are lyre-shaped with a pronounced curve and a spiral turn of more than 180 degrees. Horn thickness decreases progressively from the base to the very thin tip. While this is the typical Gredos horn conformation, other horn shapes may be found in this region and even in the same herd.



HIMALAYAN IBEX

(Capra sibirica hemalayanus)


LOCATION: Both sides of the western Himalayas from Chitral in Pakistan, eastward to Leh and the upper Shyok River in Ladakh, and southeastward to the upper Sutlej River in northern India.

DESCRIPTION: A big male will stand 40 inches at the shoulder and weigh 200 pounds. Coat is thick and woolly in winter, being shed in early summer. Color is very variable, ranging from pale brown to dark brown, with a darker dorsal stripe and often a lighter saddle patch and whitish neck patch.



HIMALAYAN TAHR

(Hemitragus jemlahicus)


LOCATION: A narrow strip along the southern flanks of the Himalayas from about Banihal Pass in the Pir Panjal Range of northern India eastward to Bhutan. It penetrates the main Himalayan Range only in some of the large gorges.

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is 36-40 inches and weighs about 180-200 pounds, sometimes more. A medium-sized, powerfully built animal with a full coat of hair and a shaggy mane around the neck and shoulders and extending to the knees. The overall color varies, but in most cases is a dark reddish-brown with a yellowish mane and a dark, sometimes indistinct, dorsal stripe. The face is always dark brown. The horns (both sexes) are short, stout, laterally compressed, keeled in front and curved backward to a tapered point.


HABITAT: A combination of big cliffs, rocks and forest.


REMARKS: Gregarious, in large herds, with adult males forming separate herds during the summer. Prefers to live on steep slopes that are more or less timbered. The tahr has remarkable climbing ability on the steepest cliffs. Does not like snow, keeping below it to as low as 5,000 feet, then following it up as it melts. Active morning and evening, resting midday. Feeds on grasses and foliage. Wary and difficult to approach. Eyesight very good, hearing and sense of smell not known.


















HIMALAYAN/NEW ZEALAND TAHR

(Hemitragus jemlahicus)


LOCATION: The South Island of New Zealand.

DESCRIPTION: This goat’s shoulder height is 36-40 inches and weighs about 180-200 pounds, sometimes more. A medium-sized, powerfully built animal with a full coat of hair and a shaggy mane around the neck and shoulders and extending to the knees. The overall color varies, but in most cases is a dark reddish-brown with a yellowish mane and a dark, sometimes indistinct, dorsal stripe. The face is always dark brown. The horns (both sexes) are short, stout, laterally compressed, keeled in front and curved backward to a tapered point.


HABITAT: Cliffs, steep mountain slopes and high pastures, at altitudes up to about 8,500 feet.


REMARKS: Outside Asia, has been introduced in the wild on the South Island of New Zealand and in parts of South Africa, and on private properties in the United States, Argentina and Austria. Other introductions in Scotland and Canada have failed. The first Himalayan tahrs were imported to New Zealand in 1904 when three pairs, originally from India, were shipped from Woburn Abbey in England to the New Zealand Tourist Board and released near Mt. Cook. Eight more were imported and released on Mt. Wakefield in 1909. In 1931 and 1937, progeny of these animals were set free near Mt. Cook and in the Sealey Range. The introductions were highly successful, as is evinced by records showing that more than 30,000 tahrs were killed by government cullers between 1937-1984.



KABUL MARKHOR

(Capra falconeri megaceros)


LOCATION: Formerly from the vicinity of Kabul, Afghanistan, eastward to the Indus River south of Saidu, Pakistan, and southward in Pakistan to the Gumal River. Within this area the distribution was highly discontinuous, due partly to the erratic location of suitable cliffs and massifs and partly to local subsistence hunting and competition from domestic livestock. In 1978, it survived in Afghanistan only in the Kabul Gorge and the Kohi Safi area of Kapissa province, and in isolated pockets in between. As of 1987 in Pakistan, it was still found in the Safed Koh range, the areas near Mardan and Sheikh Buddin, and possibly between Pezu and the Gumal River.

DESCRIPTION: The Kabul markhor is larger in horn and body and has a longer neck ruff than most Sulaiman markhors. Its horns are intermediate between those of the Kashmir and Sulaiman races, forming a cline from the moderate flare of the former to the straight, tight twist of the latter. Typically, Kabul horns are straight, with up to three complete spiral turns in an open twist; however, Kashmir-type horns with a degree of flare are occasionally found within its distribution range as well. In colonial times it was customary to measure these horns in a straight line; however, SCI measures them around the curve along the keel that begins at the back of the base.



KASHMIR MARKHOR

(Capra falconeri cashmiriensis)


LOCATION: Afghanistan: Laghman Province and the Bashgul River area. Pakistan: Chitral District, along the Kunar River from Shogore to Arandu on the west bank and to Drosh on the east bank, and up its tributary the Matuj River as far as Barenis; Dir District, along the upper Panjkora River; and Swat District on the cliffs east ofhamsberi, Kaj-i-Nag, and Pir Panjal ranges.

DESCRIPTION: A large markhor with massive horns that usually are the longest of the species. The coat and ruff are similar to those of the Astor race. Typically, Kashmir markhor horns have slight to moderate flare with 2-3 spiral twists. Most horns within its distribution range are of this type; however, straighter horns of the Kabul type have occurred in the Chitral District.



KRI-KRI (HYBRID) IBEX

(Capra ssp)


LOCATION: Dugi-Otok Island off the coast of Croatia.

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height about 32 inches. Weight 100-140 pounds. Males grow a large, shaggy chin beard. The Kri-Kri (Hybrid) ibex browses on leaves, twigs and weeds and is therefore a highly destructive feeder. Able to climb trees and feed in the branches. They are diurnal and all their senses are good. These are sturdy, powerful animals with an outer coat of long, coarse hair and undercover of fine wool. The coloration is very specific for these animals: yellowish-clear tan body color, with a distinctive "black cross" going from the front limbs across the center of the body towards the hind legs. Warning: "Hybrid Ibex" that show a different coloration or have more than two skin colors will be classified by SCI as "Feral Goat ( Europe )." The Kri-Kri (Hybrid) ibex have a distinctive horn formation: they rise upward and backward from the skull, and then spread sideways in a tight homonymous spiral.  


REMARKS: These ibex are a cross-breed between the "Kri-Kri Ibex" and a "Feral Goat". They live in the wild; many of these populations have been feral for centuries.  

   The Kri-Kri (Hybrid) ibex does not count for the 12, but may be counted for the Super 20 and Super 30



KRI-KRI IBEX

( Capra aegagrus cretica)


LOCATION: The indigenous Kri-Kri ibex are found in huntable populations on the Greek Islands of Crete (Mediterranean Sea) Sapientza (Ionian Sea) and Atalanti (Aegean Sea). GSCO has accepted the Kri-Kri ibex from Macedonia in the past, but due to recent developments this ibex will not be accepted any longer after 12/31/2016 if it has been taken inside of a high-fence operation. All of the Kri-Kri ibex taken before 12/31/2016 will still count toward the Capra World Slam, Super 20 and Super 30, because it has been such a successful conservation tool to release these goats into the wild.  

DESCRIPTION: The Kri-Kri ibex is a handsome, relatively slender animal with blackish-brown marking that contrast with the lighter overall color. Summer coat is reddish-brown, turning ashy gray in winter in adult males. Under parts and back of legs are white. The dark blackish areas include a dorsal stripe, shoulder stripes, flank stripes, front of legs, chest, tail, throat, face and beard. Calluses develop on the knees and sometimes on the chest. Males are characterized by large, scimitar-shaped, laterally compressed horns. The front edge is a sharp keel with a number of bold, sharp-edged, widely separated knobs.


REMARKS: The Kri-Kri ibex on Sapientza and Atalanti Island can only be hunted on certain days during the week and it has to be with a smooth-bore shotgun using slugs and no optics. The only two Kri-Kri ibex entries taken on the Greek Island of Crete in the GSCO and SCI archives were taken by Rudolph Sand (1981) and Soudy Golabchi (1989)



KUBAN (WESTERN) TUR

(Capra caucasica din niki)


LOCATION: The Kuban (Western) tur is generally accepted as any animal living west of Mt. El’brus in the Caucasus Mountains in the Republic of Karachayevo-Cherkesiya, Russia.

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height 37-42 inches. Weight 200-250 pounds. Larger than the mid-Caucasian tur, with a more ibex like appearance. The beard is long, narrow and prominent. The short summer coat is yellowish-tan, lighter on the back and sides, darker on the head, very dark brown on the tail and lower legs, and dirty white on the belly. The winter coat is heavier and coarser, varying from grayish to yellowish-brown, with a dark dorsal stripe. The horns are black and rather similar to those of an ibex, being scimitar-shaped and having prominent cross ridges on the front surface, but they are much more massive and relatively shorter. The tips are widely separated, the distance varying from about 16-26 inches, sometimes more.

HABITAT: Open, precipitous terrain at higher elevations, normally above timber line.

REMARKS: A top game animal that lives in some of the most beautiful mountain country anywhere. The hunt is physically demanding and long shots may be required. Bad weather can be a problem in this region, with fog, rain, hail, snow and strong winds a daily possibility. Hunters should be in shape, go early in the season, and allow enough days. Caucasian chamois are also available in this area.



LOW TATRA CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra x R. r. tatrica)


LOCATION: We lump the Low Tatra chamois (R. r. tatrica), from the Tatra Mountains of Poland and Slovakia, with Alpine chamois (R. r. rupicapra) because introductions of the latter have been made near Tatra chamois populations in Slovakia and it is possible they may have interbred.

DESCRIPTION: Scientists separated the Tatra chamois from the Alpine chamois in 1972 because of its larger skull and certain other cranial measurements, its somewhat different coloration, and its different ecological requirements. Its horns, however, are about the same size as those of the Alpine chamois.



MALLORCAN WILD GOAT

(Capra aegagrus erxleben)


LOCATION: Island of Mallorca, one of the Balearean Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. There mainly on the entire west coast and north-west in the Sierra de Tramuntana and the Formentor, Alcudia and Artá Peninsulas.

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height about 28 inches, average weight is 100-110 pounds. The Mallorcan wild goat (Balearean goat) browses on leaves, twigs and weeds and are therefore highly destructive feeders. Able to climb trees and feed in the branches. They are diurnal and all senses are good.


REMARKS: The oldest remains of this species have been dated to 2030 B.C. by archeologists that have studied the fauna of the Mediterranean Sea. The Balearean Goat is indigenous to the Balearean Island of Mallorca. These animals are completely wild, the biggest threat to their existence being the cross-breeding with domestic livestock.

The Mallorcan wild goat does not count for the 12 required for the Capra World Slam, but may be counted for the Super 20 and Super 30.



MID-ASIAN IBEX

(Capra sibirica alaina)


LOCATION: The Pamir, Alai, Transalai and Tian Shan mountains in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and China.

DESCRIPTION: This subspecies can be the largest in size and grow the largest horns. Males can weigh as much as 285 pounds, or even more. Its coloration is very different from that of the Siberian and Gobi ibexes. In winter coat, most adult males are a cinnamon-brown color of varying intensity, becoming browner and duller on the flanks, shoulders and thighs. There usually is a dark, well-developed dorsal stripe, and also a light-colored saddle patch that can vary in size, shape and location. A very dark flank band separates the brown flanks from the whitish belly. There is a distinct brown band on the front surface of the forelegs, a lighter one on the hind legs. The head is lighter than the flanks-actually somewhat grayish-and the beard is brown. However, there is a good deal of individual variation in color and markings. Some animals are darker or lighter, and some are a uniform light gray color. The dorsal stripe may be wide, narrow, or absent entirely. The saddle patch may be light or dark, large or small, on the neck or shoulder instead of the small of the back, absent entirely, or there may be more than one patch.



MID-CAUCASIAN TUR

(Capra caucasica caucasica)


LOCATION: The mid-Caucasian tur is considered to be found east of Mt. El’brus and west of the Republic of North Osetiya, solely within the Republic of Kabardino-Balkariya, Russia.

DESCRIPTION: Intermediate between the west Caucasian and east Caucasian turs. Compared to the true west Caucasian tur the mid-Caucasian tur is described as slightly taller, standing 38-43 inches at the shoulder. The black horns are somewhat smoother, with smaller cross ridges, and the tips may be closer together. The beard is shorter, being only of moderate length. Summer coat is reddish-gray, with forehead and chest darker and browner; front of legs darker, becoming black near the hoofs; belly and inner thighs a dirty white. A darker dorsal stripe may or may not be present.


REMARKS: This animal is a true naturally-occurring cross between the Dagestan (Eastern) and Kuban (Western) tur. The horns of some animals tend to look almost exactly like either the Eastern or Western tur, while most exhibit horn characteristics of both.



NEW ZEALAND CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra rupicapra)


LOCATION: The South Island of New Zealand, where they are widespread throughout the high country. Also occur at low elevations in some areas. Chamois are probably the most numerous wild ungulates on the South Island. This is the only free-ranging chamois population outside Europe and the Middle East.

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height 28-31 inches. Weight 65-110 pounds. A graceful, agile mountain animal. The short summer coat is reddish or pale brown. The winter coat of long guard hairs over thick under fur is a dark shade of brown. The under parts are pale, the rump is white. Throat, lower jaw, front of face and inside of ears are white, and there is a dark mask from ear to muzzle. The hoofs have hard, sharp edges to utilize small rock projections, and rubbery soles to grip on slippery rock. Both sexes grow short, slim black horns that are round in cross section and hook sharply backward near the tips. The female's horns can be longer than the male's, but are slimmer and sometimes lack the hooks.


BEHAVIOR: Gregarious, living in herds of up to 20-30 animals. Older males are usually solitary except during the rut in May-June when they join the females. Diurnal, feeding early and late, with the middle part of the day spent resting. Both a browser and a grazer. A sentinel (usually a female) is posted to watch for danger, and will warn the others with shrill whistles. All senses are excellent, but eyesight is exceptional. Very agile and elusive, handling precipitous terrain with ease.


REMARKS: The first chamois reached New Zealand in 1907, when two males and six females, a gift from Emperor Franz Josef of Austria, arrived in Wellington. Chamois ranging freely in the mountains of New Zealand are first-class game animals. The best trophies for mounting purposes are taken May-August when the coats are dark and thick.



NUBIAN IBEX

(Capra nubiana)


LOCATION: The Red Sea Hills in Egypt and Sudan, and the mountains of Eritrea. Also found in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, and in Israel, southwestern Jordan, and the Arabian Peninsula.  

DESCRIPTION: Smaller and more lightly built than other true ibex, and with more slender horns. Color is light brown with a dark dorsal stripe. Legs have conspicuous black-and-white markings. Beard is long and dark. The Nubian ibex is distinguished from Asian and Alpine ibex by its narrower horns with their rounded outer edges. Asian specimens of Nubian ibex are somewhat smaller than those from Africa, and have shorter, thinner horns.


BEHAVIOR: Feeds early morning and late afternoon, but also at night when hunted hard. Eats grasses, bushes and foliage. Will stand on its hind legs to browse from bushes or trees. Has to survive with little or n water during much of the year. Eyesight, hearing and sense of smell are exceptional. An extremely agile climber on the steepest rock.


HABITAT: Arid desert hills and mountains from sea level to 6,000 feet.


REMARKS: An excellent game animal, as are all wild goats. It lives in some of the most harsh, least hospitable terrain on Earth, where it has been persecuted for centuries by local people. Hunted by glassing and stalking, by conducting drives, or by waiting at waterholes. The first two require fitness on the part of the hunter; all require long-range shooting ability, often at a moving target. Success is by no means certain.



PERSIAN DESERT IBEX

(Capra aegagrus ssp)


LOCATION: Iran; Khorasan Province, Yazd and the Zagros Mountains.

DESCRIPTION: The Persian desert ibex weighs only 100-130 pounds, versus the bezoar ibex which weighs around 200 pounds.. A handsome animal with blackish markings that contrast sharply with the lighter body color. The summer coat is reddish-brown, with adult males turning ashy-gray in winter. Underparts and back of legs are white. The blackish areas include the dorsal stripe, shoulder stripes, flank stripes, front of legs, chest, tail, throat and face. There is a long, black chin beard. Callouses are developed on the knees and sometimes on the chest. Males are characterized by large, scimitar-shaped, laterally compressed horns. The front edge is sharp, forming a keel for some distance, above which are a number of bold, sharp-edged, widely separated knobs.


REMARKS: Sedentary, living its life in a small area. Favors steep, rocky terrain, in arid regions. May be diurnal or nocturnal, depending on predator and human activity, but older males tend to sleep in hiding places (often caves) by day and feed at night. Drinks water regularly when available, usually very early or late, or even after dark. Some observers believe it can exist indefinitely without drinking free water. Extremely surefooted and agile. All senses are acute.


















PYRENEAN CHAMOIS

(Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica)


LOCATION: Locally in the Pyrenees Mountains of northeastern Spain and southern France.

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height 29-30 inches. Weight 55-90 pounds. Summer coat is reddish, turning brown in winter. Under parts are pale. Rump, throat, lower jaw and front of face are yellowish.


REMARKS: The Pyrenean chamois is larger and darker than the Cantabrian chamois, with longer, thicker horns.



RONDA IBEX

(Capra pyrenaica hispanica)


LOCATION: Ronda Mountains in extreme southern Spain.

DESCRIPTION: The smallest type of Spanish ibex with the smallest horns. Overall color is a light brown. The horns resemble those of an Alpine ibex, typically growing upward in a V-shape, then backward with a spiral turn of only 90 degrees. Horn thickness is constant for half the length, then decreases gradually to the broomed tips. While this is the typical Ronda horn conformation, other horn shapes may be found in this region and even in the same herd.


REMARKS: The Ronda ibex is one of three categories established for record-keeping purposes by splitting Mediterranean ibex (subspecies hispanica) into geographical groups based on horn size and shape. (The other two are Beceite ibex and southeastern Spanish ibex.)



SEROW

(Capricornis sumatraensis)


LOCATION: The Himalayan region, central and southern China, Indochina, and Sumatra.  

DESCRIPTION: The Serow is a goat and resembles the Goral but much larger in body size. Females are about the same sizes as males, but appear less bulky in body and have slightly smaller horns. It is difficult to differentiate the sexes. It has a stout but rather long-legged build, a large head and a long face. The coat is coarse and shaggy. The upper parts are usually gray or black, shading into rusty red, with the mane varying from white to black and the underparts whitish.


REMARKS: Shares with the Himalayan tahr the reputation of inhabiting the worst ground in the Himalayas



SINDH IBEX

(Capra aegagrus blythi)


LOCATION: West of the Indus River in southern Pakistan and the adjoining Chagai Hills of southern Afghanistan. Boundaries with the typical bezoar to the west are unclear. Possibly a small portion in extreme southeastern Iran.

DESCRIPTION: Weight 100-200 pounds. Differs from the typical bezoar by being paler in color and somewhat smaller in size, and in having horns that are closer together at the tips and either without knobs on the front keel or with only a few small ones.


REMARKS: The Sindh ibex lives in arid cliffs and mountains, from near sea level to 11,000 feet. Main requirement seems to be precipitous crags where it is safe from disturbance.



SOUTHEASTERN SPANISH IBEX

(Capra pyrenaica hispanica)


LOCATION: The mountains and reserves of Tejada, Almijara, Sierra Nevada, Lujar, Cazorla, and Muela de Cortes in southeastern Spain.

DESCRIPTION: Smaller and lighter in color than the Beceite and Gredos types, but larger and darker than the Ronda type. Horn size and shape vary considerably from place to place, with those from the Sierra Nevada generally the largest. Horns from Tejada-Almijara tend to be the most distinctive, forming a circle with the tips growing toward the neck like those of a mouflon. The keel is smooth, making the horns almost round in cross-section.


REMARKS: The southeastern Spanish ibex is one of three categories established for record-keeping purposes by splitting Mediterranean ibex (subspecies hispanica) into geographical groups based on horn size and shape. The other two are Beceite ibex and Ronda ibex.



SULAIMAN MARKHOR

(Capra falconeri jerdoni)


LOCATION: Pakistan, south of the Gumal River, mainly in the Sulaiman range and the Torghar Hills of the Toba-Kakar range (District Zhob), and in the Takatu Hills (District Quetta).  

DESCRIPTION: Shoulder height 35-36 inches. Weight perhaps 150 pounds. A smaller markhor with a comparatively short body. The coat is short, coarse and thick in winter, short and smooth in summer. The male's ruff is much shorter and less conspicuous than in the northern races. The horns are straight, forming two to three complete spiral turns that can have either a tight twist resembling a corkscrew or a more open twist of the Kabul type.


HABITAT: Desert mountains not usually higher than 10,000 feet, but offering some of the more difficult and dangerous hunting for mountain game in the world.


REMARKS: Stockley wrote that the ground this animal lived on was particularly bad, the rock being crumbly and rotten as well as steep. He felt it was only this that had saved the animal from extermination by local tribesmen.

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